Mechanical problems and soft-tissue injuries are the most common causes of low back discomfort. These injuries can include intervertebral disc degeneration, nerve root compression, and incorrect spinal joint mobility. A torn or pulled muscle and/or ligament is the most prevalent cause of lower back discomfort.

A low back sprain or strain can occur suddenly or gradually over time as a result of repetitive activities. Strains occur when a muscle is stretched beyond far and tears, causing damage to the muscle. Sprains occur when ligaments, which link the bones, are overstretched and torn.

Sprains and strains are commonly caused by the following factors:-

Lifting a big object or bending the spine while lifting are both dangerous.

A fall, for example, is an example of a sudden action that puts too much strain on the low back.

Over time, poor posture

Sports injuries, particularly those involving twisting or high impact pressures, are common.

While sprains and strains do not appear to be dangerous and do not usually result in long-term pain, the acute pain can be extremely severe.

Chronic Lower Back Pain Causes

Chronic pain is defined as lasting longer than three months and beyond the body’s natural healing mechanism. Chronic low back pain is frequently caused by a disc condition, a joint problem, and/or an inflamed nerve root. Typical causes include:

Herniated lumbar disc: A lumbar disc’s jelly-like center can burst through the thick outer covering and irritate a surrounding nerve root. The herniated section of the disc contains proteins that generate inflammation when they reach a nerve root, and nerve root discomfort is caused by both inflammation and nerve compression. The disc wall is likewise densely packed with nerve fibers, and a rip through the wall can result in excruciating agony.

The illness of degenerative discs: Intervertebral discs are full of fluids and healthy at birth. Discs lose moisture and wear out as people age. As the disc loses hydration, it loses its ability to resist stresses and transfers force to the disc wall, which can cause tears and pain, as well as weakening and herniation. The disc might potentially compress, causing stenosis.

Facet joint dysfunction. There are two facet joints behind each disc at each motion segment in the lumbar spine. These joints have cartilage between the bones and are surrounded by a capsular ligament, which is richly innervated by nerves. These joints can be painful by themselves, or in conjunction with disc pain.

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The sacroiliac joint connects the sacrum at the bottom of the spine to each side of the pelvis. It is a strong, low-motion joint that primarily absorbs shock and tension between the upper body and the lower body. The sacroiliac joint can become painful if it becomes inflamed (sacroiliitis) or if there is too much or too little motion of the joint.

Stenosis of the spine: This disorder produces discomfort by narrowing the spinal canal, which houses the nerve roots. The narrowing in the lower back can be central, forminal, or both, and it can occur at a single or numerous levels.

Spondylolisthesis:When one vertebra slips over the next one, this condition arises. Spondylolisthesis is classified into five forms, the most prevalent of which are caused by a defect or fracture of the pars (the space between the facet joints) or mechanical instability of the facet joints (degenerative). Instability (back) or nerve compression can also produce discomfort (leg).

Osteoarthritis: This condition is caused by disc and facet joint wear and tear. It can cause discomfort, inflammation, instability, and stenosis to varying degrees at a single or numerous levels of the lower spine. Spinal osteoarthritis is connected with age and progresses slowly. Spondylosis, or degenerative joint disease, is another name for it.

Deformity: Scoliosis and kyphosis are two types of spine curvature. If the deformity causes disc disintegration, facet joint breakdown, sacroiliac joint breakdown, or stenosis, it may cause lower back pain.

Trauma: Acute spine fractures or dislocations can cause pain. Lower back discomfort that arises after a trauma, such as a car accident or a fall, should be checked by a doctor.

Fracture due to compression: A fracture in the cylindrical vertebra, in which the bone caves in on itself, can cause severe pain. This form of fracture is more common in older persons and is caused by weak bones, such as osteoporosis.

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